Sovereign Silver Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol is made of just two ingredients: 99.999% pure silver and pharmaceutical-grade purified water. Our particle size is so small (as small as 0.8 nanometers) that we have the lowest concentration with the most efficacy*. At 10 ppm, you will most likely only taste water!

The carbopol used is approved for use in food as an ingestible. It is also used in medicinal syrups for infants. It is present as a fraction of a percentage of the total formula content, used only for engaging the liquid into a gel consistency for appropriate and prolonged topical application. The sodium hydroxide is a common ingredient used to adjust the product pH close to skin pH. The small amounts of sodium hydroxide added react completely to form a neutral pH environment that is safe for skin

All Sovereign Silver products carry a 3-year expiration date, supported by evidence from stability studies. This means that even at the 3-year mark, a silver content analysis would still show a reading of at least 10 ppm (label claim). Over time, the concentration may decrease gradually as the silver adheres to (or adsorbs onto) the inside of the glass bottle or the surfaces of the closure system. It is always best to consume the product by (or before) the expiration date.

Sovereign Silver can be found at fine health food stores and select pharmacies all across the USA, and it can be purchased online here as well as many other online stores. See our Store Locator to find a retailer near you.

Under the Dietary Supplement Health Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), dietary supplements may only be marketed for children 4 years and older. See your health care practitioner for use with children under 4.

Silver Hydrosol is marketed as a Dietary Supplement under DSHEA. In the USA, supplements are regulated by the FDA in a different category than drugs. Natural Immunogenics will not make drug claims in its marketing materials, even though many other colloidal silver manufacturers do. Making drug claims against specific infections or diseases, even if heavily substantiated, would risk re-categorization of our hydrosols as unapproved new drugs (requiring an NDA/New Drug Application at a potential cost of millions of dollars). We take very seriously the regulations and abide by strict manufacturing requirements (cGMP, FTC, etc.) to assure that each batch of finished product is as pure and safe* as the last. See What We Can/Can’t Say…and Why.

At this time, there is not sufficient evidence to support safety and efficacy when used in fish tanks (saltwater, freshwater or otherwise), and therefore using Sovereign Silver in fish tanks is not recommended. Additionally, in saltwater tanks, the chemistry of the silver and the saltwater will render a majority of the silver inactive.

Yes, you can. This approach is scientifically validated in the peer-reviewed literature where dose-dependent responses are given in the water supply of the animals throughout the course of the day. [1-3]

1. Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J. S.; Cho, H. S.; Rha, D. S.; Kim, J. M.; Park, J. D.; Choi, B. S.; Lim, R.; Chang, H. K.; Chung, Y. H.; Kwon, I. H.; Jeong, J.; Han, B. S.; Yu, I. J., Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity, genotoxicity, and gender-related tissue distribution of silver nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Inhalation toxicology 2008, 20 (6), 575-83.
2. Loeschner, K.; Hadrup, N.; Qvortrup, K.; Larsen, A.; Gao, X.; Vogel, U.; Mortensen, A.; Rye Lam, H.; Larsen, E., Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate. Part Fibre Toxicol 2011, 8 (1), 1-14.
3. Wilding, L. A.; Bassis, C. M.; Walacavage, K.; Hashway, S.; Leroueil, P. R.; Morishita, M.; Maynard, A. D.; Philbert, M. A.; Bergin, I. L., Repeated dose (28-day) administration of silver nanoparticles of varied size and coating does not significantly alter the indigenous murine gut microbiome. Nanotoxicology 2016, 10 (5), 513-20.

For best results, it is advisable to give your pet fresh water with fresh Sovereign Silver mixed into it each day. However, Sovereign Silver can be added to water in quantity for up to a few days’ worth at one time. For example, if you are going away on vacation for a couple nights and leaving extra food and water for your cat, feel free to leave the dosage for those days in the water bowl.

Simply determine the right dose of Sovereign Silver Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol for your pet’s weight and add it to a little over a day’s water supply in their water bowl.  Use our dosage weight chart on the Sovereign Silver For Pets “How to Use” tab.

Sovereign Silver Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol is safe* for all types of mammals over 3.5 lbs (1.6 kg) – small to large, feathered to furry. Just be sure to know your pet’s weight and follow the directions on the packaging, or visit our “how to use” tab on the Sovereign Silver For Pets product page.

Note:  It is not safe to put Sovereign Silver Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol in a fish tank!

No, refrigeration is not required or recommended for any of our products. We only recommend keeping the product away from sources of electromagnetic energy (microwaves, electrical outlets) and direct sunlight. Product should not be stored in a freezer either.

Our silver product tastes like water, although sometimes people report detecting a faint metallic taste. This faint metallic taste might feel stronger, usually due to the pH of the mouth when the product was ingested. For example, if you recently drank coffee, which is highly acidic, you might be more apt to detect the faint metallic taste.

If Sovereign Silver ever tastes stronger (bitter/sour/pungent) than “water with faint metallic taste,” the primary reason would probably be due to metabolic changes, such as acidic saliva, most likely due to changes in diet or from dietary choices, both of which could result in a change in the pH of your saliva. Secondary issues could be leaching of metals from dental amalgams. However, leaching usually only occurs when the saliva is acidic, thus pointing back to a dietary change. You can easily find lists of alkaline foods on the internet.

Organoleptic (taste & odor) tests are part of our batch release parameters. Our product is manufactured the same exact way with the same exact components, each and every time, and we have never released a “bad” batch.

People have been taught in high school and college freshman chemistry that silver ions react with chloride ions to form water insoluble silver chloride. But in advanced courses in chemistry, one further learns that in the presence of large excesses of chloride ion, such as that found in stomach acid and/or blood, the silver exists as a water soluble complex ion containing 2 chloride ions per silver ion. Since this is water soluble, it can be readily absorbed through the stomach if necessary. Now, while the strength of the complex ion formed by the reaction of silver with the two chloride ions is enough to prevent precipitation, it is also not enough to prevent the silver from its normal ability. There is no loss in effectiveness*.

Mild Silver Proteins (MSP) contain silver in a bound, or compounded form, thereby leaving less available for desirable interaction within the body.

Silver proteins are not necessary for the body to receive the immune supportive benefits of silver. In fact, binding silver into protein compounds actually limits their supportive interaction within the body. Learn more about the various Types of Silver. Why take higher concentrations of mostly inactive silver to achieve the same efficacy one finds in silver hydrosol, with > 98% bioactive silver?

More is not always better. What makes one silver product more effective than another is not its PPM but rather its particle size, charge (not neutral) and purity. The smaller the particle, the more bioavailable it becomes, and the greater the surface area available for conversion to bioactive silver while within the body. Read Myths About Silver to learn more.

Surface area is of utmost importance, since the conversion from neutral metal to positively charged bio-active silver happens at the surface of the particle. Only the outermost layer or two of atoms on the nanoparticle surface will be able to convert during circulation in the body before excretion. Imagine having a large onion that weighs 1 pound, and having a basket full of many small shallots that weighs 1 pound. Only the outer layer of the onion or the shallots can be peeled off and used. The many shallots have far more material on the surface, making that a better choice. This is analogous to what happens in the body. Only the outer layer of atoms of the silver particle can be peeled off and converted into bio-active silver, before the remaining particle is excreted. A smaller particle size gives greater surface area and greater potential to convert into bio-active silver.

The question of particle charge is important because it acknowledges the bio-active state of silver, called the cation (Ag+). Many manufactured colloidal silvers are purposely or inadvertently bound into neutral silver metal particles, or compounds like silver salts and silver proteins. This is done primarily to cheaply achieve higher total silver ppm concentrations. However, throwing more silver into colloidal suspension (or dissolved solution, in the case of silver salts) does not necessarily result in greater benefit. What matters for efficacy* is the concentration of bio-active silver, or positively charged silver.

When you have a majority of active silver (Ag+), you need very little to effect very powerful and positive changes within the biological environment. For example, 10 parts-per-million of a predominantly active cation suspension can exert far more powerful effects than 500 parts-per-million silver colloids bound into neutral protein species.

For the average consumer, colloidal silver is a ‘blind’ item. It’s hard to see what your body sees without magnifying colloids via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by a factor of 100,000x or even greater. At that level, particle size can be measured. Smaller particle sizes yield greater surface area to convert into bio-active silver. Other measurements, such as ion specific electrodes or ISE’s can indicate active Ag+ content.

Over the past few decades, the term colloidal silver has been dramatically polluted by manufacturers that produce (knowingly or unknowingly) silver products contaminated by the presence of salts, proteins, compounds and stabilizers, all of which serve to degrade and diminish the bioactivity of the silver. Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol is a mixture of silver ions and silver nanoclusters as small as 0.8 nm in size. It is not to be confused with “ionic silver,” which means by definition that the product should be comprised entirely of silver ions. Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol is composed of only 2 ingredients: 99.999% pure silver and USP 23, the United States Pharmacopeial monograph for pharmaceutical grade purified water. It represents a unique blend of the most active and effective species of silver (positively charged silver ions and the smallest type of silver nanoparticles called nanoclusters) at such low concentration as to present no fear of toxicity*. A Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol has the smallest particles and highest charge ratio of any colloidal silver product, and so represents the ultimate refinement of the colloidal silver category. Learn more about the various Types of Silver and what makes a silver hydrosol different

Silver hydrosol is a mixture of positively charged silver ions and silver nanoclusters (particles <5 nm). Larger particles (>5 nm) lead to visible yellow color, and more particles absorb more light. Darker color is an indication of one or more of the following: Large particles that reflect or absorb visible light, compounds (salts or proteins), reduction of bio-active silver ions, or other impurities. A smaller particle is desirable due to surface area – and if visible color is an indication of larger particles, then visible color is your visual cue to less effective (larger particles) products. To learn more, read Myths About Silver.

Surface area is of utmost importance, since the conversion from neutral metal to positively charged bio-active silver happens at the surface of the particle. Only the outermost layer or two of atoms on the nanoparticle surface will be able to convert during circulation in the body before excretion. Imagine having a large onion that weighs 1 pound, and having a basket full of many small shallots that weighs 1 pound. Only the outer layer of the onion or the shallots can be peeled off and used. The many shallots have far more material on the surface, making that a better choice. This is analogous to what happens in the body. Only the outer layer of atoms of the silver particle can be peeled off and converted into bio-active silver, before the remaining particle is excreted. A smaller particle size gives greater surface area and greater potential to convert into bio-active silver.

Our silver is sourced from different mines in the USA and then refined to our specifications of 99.999% pure.

Silver is naturally found as a trace element in foods such as wheat, mammalian breast milk, and mushrooms, as well as natural waters. People on “free from” diets, such as gluten-free, dairy-free, or nut-free may not get the typical trace quantities found in the diet.  Furthermore, silver is recognized by Canada as a trace mineral necessary for the maintenance of health.

Although silver is a known component of the human and animal diet, FDA regulations limit the labeling of dietary supplements. Please consult with your health care provider to find out if silver hydrosol is appropriate for your needs during pregnancy or for the needs of your baby. Silver is a naturally occurring trace element found in all mammalian milk, edible mushrooms, whole grains, spring water, saltwater and even tap water, among others.

The product will not be damaged if exposed to high temperatures (under 125 degrees Fahrenheit) for short periods. It is not advised to store the product in a car during the summer, where temperatures can exceed this for prolonged periods

Dilution is never recommended, since the product contains a safe*, low concentration of silver. We strongly recommend against mixing it with saline or other potential binding agents.

However, if your child just loves apple juice and is hesitant try something new, you can  add the correct dose to their favorite drink right before they drink it. Note that dietary supplements are intended only for children age 4 and above.

If you are following the standard labeling instructions, having an empty stomach is not necessary; we do, however, recommend taking the product 5-15 minutes away from food and drinks. Consult with your health care practitioner for any other dosages.

Sovereign Silver Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol is safe* to take up to 7 times per day for 70 years, or a total of 178,840 teaspoons in a 70 year period. There is no need to take breaks, and in fact we recommend a teaspoon per day for daily immune support.*

Sovereign Silver is a Bio-Active Silver Hydrosol, meaning that it is a mixture of silver nanoparticles as small as 0.8nm in size, and positively charged silver ions. Learn more about the different Types of Silver.

Just like chemicals can be man-made or come from naturally occurring sources like plants, nanoparticles can also be engineered or naturally occurring. As you would expect, synthetic chemicals engineered by man tend to have a greater risk of unintended effects, while natural products (chemicals that naturally occur in the world around us) tend to have much lower risk profiles.

Peer reviewed literature provides evidence of naturally occurring silver colloids (silver nanoparticles) in river waters in Texas [1] and Mexico[2], with the mechanisms of particle formation being understood to include the natural organic matter found in freshwaters[3]. Natural silver nanomaterials have been present throughout history and pose no risks when compared to engineered nanomaterials that can cause concerns.

Silver hydrosol is a mixture of ions and naturally forming nanoparticles. Silver hydrosol could be considered a nanosilver product, if only considering particle size, but “nanosilver” is not a widely accepted scientific term, nor is it an actual product description or classification. It only refers to size and does not inform if the product is engineered nanotechnology or natural nanotechnology.

Silver companies use marketing language like nanosilver, hoping to convince the consumer that their particle size is small. The problem is that nano covers a range, generally from 1-100 nanometers (nm); there is a huge difference between a 1 nm particle and a 60 nm particle. Nano-sized does not necessarily mean that the particle was engineered to be nano. To learn more about nanotechnology and nanoengineering, please read or section on Safety & Toxicity.

See more about Why Our Products Are Not Engineered Nanotechnology.


1. Wen, L.-S., et al., Colloidal and Particulate Silver in River and Estuarine Waters of Texas. Environmental Science & Technology, 1997. 31(3): p. 723-731.
3. Akaighe, N., et al., Humic Acid-Induced Silver Nanoparticle Formation Under Environmentally Relevant Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 45(9): p. 3895-3901.

Silver does not alter the distribution of species in the gut microbiome*. A peer reviewed literature study by researchers at the University of Michigan looked at whether ionic silver or colloidal silver particles in pure forms altered the natural distribution of species in the gut microbiome (Wilding, et al., Nanotoxicology, 2016). A similar number of overall species was observed between a water-only control and all forms of silver administered orally at 2,000X the EPA Reference Dose for 28 days. However, a prescription antibiotic was found to disrupt over half of the species observed.


Argyria is a condition caused by the ingestion or inhalation of elemental silver, ionic silver, low quality colloidal silver, silver compounds or the inhalation of silver dust. The most dramatic symptom of argyria is the skin becoming blue or bluish-gray colored. Argyria may be found as generalized argyria or local argyria. Argyrosis is the corresponding condition related to the eye. The condition is believed to be permanent, but laser therapy has been used to treat localized forms with satisfactory cosmetic results.

It is true that silver in huge excess beyond 10,000,000 micrograms over 70 years per EPA can, in some cases, lead to argyria, a benign cosmetic skin discoloration. Impurities in other colloidal silvers may also increase the risk. However, pure silver hydrosol – which is free of proteins, salts, and other compounds – poses no health hazard when used as directed.* High parts per million (PPM) concentrations, particularly those that exceed the EPA oral Daily Reference Dose (RfD) for silver are not necessary and should be avoided. Read Myths About Silver to learn more. You can also view our Safety Statement written by a toxicologist formerly with the FDA.

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